What Causes Cancer?
Cancer is an abnormality that affects cells throughout the body. These cells fail to respond to boundary signals and continue dividing, spreading to distant parts of the body. These tumors are very difficult to remove surgically. The term cancer comes from the Greek word carcinos, which means crab. It is an extremely common disease and is the most common cause of death in adults. Despite the widespread incidence of cancer, no one knows what causes it.
While most cancers are non-hereditary, the risk of developing cancer increases by up to seventy percent in families with a particular genetic mutation. But the prevalence of these mutations is very low. Less than 3% of the population carries the specific genetic defect that increases a person’s risk of a specific type of cancer. For example, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase a person’s risk of breast and ovarian cancer by about 75%. Lynch syndrome causes only 3% of colorectal or colon tumours.
The transformation of a normal cell into a cancerous one is similar to a chain reaction: the initial errors compound to become more serious, allowing the cell to escape more controls. This rebellious state of affairs works against the body’s design and is termed clonal evolution. This ongoing process is called a clonal growth and promotes progression to more advanced stages. It can also result in a higher number of tumors with variable characteristics that complicate treatment.
During childhood, healthy cells continually grow and reproduce. They are needed to protect us from injury or infection. However, cancer cells fail to listen to these signals and continue to multiply. When these cells are no longer needed, they may spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. As the cancer grows, it invades other parts of the body. Once it has reached an advanced stage, the disease may have spread to other areas of the body.
The transformation of a normal cell into a cancerous one is a complex process that has many facets. In one of these stages, the cancerous cells must break away from the original tumor and attach to the outside wall of a vessel. Then, they must travel through the vessel, which is why they must pass through the vessel. Eventually, the cancerous cells will migrate to a new organ. It is then treated in the same manner as cancer.
Cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA of cells. These changes alter the normal behaviour of the cell. A mutation in the genome can cause cancer. The mutation in the cell’s DNA can change the behavior of the entire organism. The mutated DNA causes the cancer to grow uncontrollably. While most cancers are caused by a mutation, it can also be caused by other factors. A gene can change its function, resulting in a faulty gene or improperly functioning cell.